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Tooth decay in children

Most parents believe that caries can only be on the chewing surface of the tooth and when they look into the baby’s oral cavity they don’t see any problems, thinking that the tooth is visually whole, and therefore not damaged. But it’s not always the case. A dentist can also see hidden caries.

Below we list the main causes, classifications, criteria and methods for treating caries in baby teeth.

Types of dental caries in children
The frame varies in depth of damage:

Initial tooth decay – characterized by the appearance of stains on the teeth, but the defect is still missing.
Superficial – caries, which forms a defect on the surface of the enamel.
Medium – the defect not only affects the enamel, but also the surface dentin.
Deep – A defect that affects the deeper layers of dentin.
By localization:

Fissure (on the chewing surface of the tooth).
Approximate (i.e. on the lateral surfaces).
Cervical (at the base of the gums).
Caries is a pathological process that develops after teething destroying the hard tissues of the tooth, resulting in a carious defect. Causes of caries can be both internal and external factors.

Internal factors can originate from the prenatal period, when a tooth is just beginning to be laid, at the sixth week of pregnancy. If during this period a pregnant woman develops toxicosis, a threat of miscarriage or a disease requiring medication may develop a pathological process in the hard tissues of the baby’s teeth, which will appear after eruption. Internal factors include: somatic diseases (diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases), malnutrition, stressful situations, etc.

External factors Poor hygiene at home, since plaque is a pathogenic microflora that secretes organic acids and begins to destroy tooth enamel. A special role in the occurrence of dental caries is played by the S. Mutans microorganism. This microorganism of the streptococcal series is transmitted by the contact-domestic way, and is in the oral cavity throughout life, for example, with a kiss from the mother and baby, when adults lick the baby’s spoon and nipple. It is important to note here that in a child all hygiene products, as well as spoons, cups, must be individual.

Also, tooth decay appears during the period when the baby is added complementary foods, that is, after teething. During this period, parents begin to sweeten water, teas, and fruit drinks, thereby “providing” carbohydrates to the tooth enamel that has not yet formed, after which decay of the milk tooth begins to form, and this process is called “bottle” caries.

Is tooth formation possible without caries?
Of course available. Dentistry is actively developing, there are many methods that help prevent the formation of decay of a milk tooth, and then permanent. The main stage is called prevention.

It is important to understand that a visit to the dentist should be planned already at the age of six months, when the baby’s first teeth begin to erupt. This will provide an opportunity to see signs that may indicate the presence of decay of a deciduous tooth, the doctor will give the necessary recommendations for caring for teeth at home.

Children should definitely do a scheduled inspection every 3-6 months, depending on the level of the child’s health, it is necessary to carry out professional hygiene, as it differs significantly from home hygiene.

Prevention in the doctor’s office
The iStomatolog Center uses a large arsenal of “ammunition” in the fight against tooth decay:

Ozone therapy, using the application of ozone (O3), with the HealOzone apparatus (Kavo Dental, Germany) – this is a completely painless procedure that does not require any pain medication, helps to suppress cariogenic bacteria in 10-40 seconds.

Fissure sealing – after teething, the tooth goes through the mineralization stage, that is, it forms for another 3-5 years, depending on the group of the permanent tooth. During this period, the tooth is very sensitive to various irritants. On milk teeth there are anatomical formations in which food can linger, and during this period it is important to close these formations (fissures) with sealant.

It is advisable to cover the tooth as soon as it erupted, since in the future the tooth will not need to be dissected, pigmentation removed, “non-invasive sealing”. If, nevertheless, pigmentation has formed, it is still necessary to cover it with sealant, but before that, the invasive sealing pigmentation must be removed.

Treatment of decay of deciduous teeth
The treatment of milk teeth is very different from the treatment of permanent teeth and depends on many factors: the degree of root formation, the degree of tooth decay, the state of the child’s health, even the age and behavior of the child in the chair by the dentist.

It is important to correctly diagnose the carious process. Diagnosis is not only a visual examination of the oral cavity, but also additional methods such as x-rays.

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