Crowding of teeth
Among the various dental problems encountered in young and adult patients, one rather serious one should be noted – crowded teeth.
This phenomenon is an anomaly of development characterized by a lack of space for the physiologically correct arrangement of teeth on the jaw. It manifests itself through the wrong angle of rotation of individual teeth with respect to most teeth of the dentition and / or their piling on each other, or in eruption outside the arch.
There are three clinical forms of crowding of teeth:
mild space deficit up to 3 mm;
average degree of space deficit 4-6 mm;
severe degree of lack of space 6-9 mm.
Misalignment usually occurs on both jaws, but may require different treatment approaches. In case of untimely medical care or lack thereof, the degree of crowding increases over time, which greatly complicates and increases the duration of treatment.
What is the cause of the pathology?
A common cause of crowding is the growth of wisdom teeth, or the so-called “Eights”. As a rule, “eights” appear at the age of 17-25 years and, surprisingly, often for them there is no free space in the jaw. During teething, such teeth usually take the wrong position with respect to their neighbors and cause an unwanted tooth shift in the entire dentition.
Another reason for crowding of teeth can be called insufficient development of the jaw in which the teeth do not fit in the dentition and move on top of each other.
As a rule, insufficient jaw size is associated with a genetic predisposition, lack of solid food in the child’s diet, infantile swallowing, premature extraction of milk teeth, and the presence of adenoids, due to which the oral type of breathing is formed.
Treatment of crowded teeth in children
Preventive examinations of children at the orthodontist must be carried out from 6-7 years of age. It is during this period that it is already possible to diagnose most problems and begin to effectively deal with them.
To stimulate the growth and development of the jaws, simple but effective structures (devices) are used. As a rule, in such cases a special plate with screws is used, which can be removed and cleaned.
In cases where it is difficult for a child to strictly comply with a doctor’s instructions for various reasons, and constant wearing of an installed device is problematic, it’s possible for a specialist to solve the problem by constantly fixing a fixed structure.
In this case, the orthodontic appliances are attached to the teeth using a special glass-ionomer cement, which provides reliable fixation and saturates the tooth tissue with fluorine, thereby strengthening the tooth enamel.
This type of apparatus has been used for many years and has proven its high efficiency. The combination of the design features of this device and medical steel prevents the accumulation of food and plaque under it, and ensures hygiene and ease of use and cleaning.
In adolescence, a combination of removable devices and braces is also often used to treat crowding problems.
Correlation of crowding and wisdom teeth
There are many cases where straight teeth bent under the influence of erupting wisdom teeth. In cases where there is not enough space on the jaw for eights, or when they occupy the wrong position, doctors recommend removing wisdom teeth, which practically eliminates their further negative effect on the dentition.
If there is enough space for the location of the wisdom teeth, then there is no need to remove them, since they will fully and effectively participate in the chewing process.
Eliminating crowding with braces
Braces are effective in eliminating crowding in children and adults of almost any age. The conditions for successful treatment are, firstly, the end of the formation of the roots of the patient’s teeth, which falls on the 11-12 year of life, and secondly, the presence of healthy bone tissue in which the teeth will move. To create a place for teeth to be moved, orthodontists use special expanding devices, their combinations with braces, stripping of the lateral surfaces of the teeth (separation, slight grinding of the surface layer of the tooth), distalization and, in severe cases, the removal of individual teeth.
What happens if you leave it as it is?
A lot of plaque remains on the crowded teeth, which cannot be removed even with the most careful care of the oral cavity. As a rule, plaque is a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microflora and contributes to the emergence of the so-called tartar. In turn, excessive deposition of plaque and tartar leads to inflammation and bleeding of the gums, the occurrence of a number of periodontal diseases, contributes to the development of caries, often hidden, which leads to tooth decay and inflammation of the nerves.